Do this quick quiz with me. You MUST write this down or forego the entire article…really…it won’t make any sense.
a) On a scale of 1-10,10 being highest, WRITE DOWN on a piece of paper how attractive you are compared to the rest of the population.
b) On a scale of 1-10, with 10 being most intelligent, write down how intelligent you are compared to the rest of the population.
c) On a scale of 1-10, with 10 being the highest decile, write down what potential you have for income level in 10 years.
You see what you want to see.
So do I.
Notice how close the first number you wrote down was to 7? Pretty amazing. 80% of all people believe they are above average in physical appearance.
In intelligence notice how close to 8 you were? You perceive yourself as slightly more intelligent than you perceive your appearance to be.
Finally income POTENTIAL is an 8 as well. It has to be the same as intelligence or higher or you couldn’t have written down what you did for intelligence.
Now, someone reading this article today will write down different numbers and see themselves differently, but the vast majority of people will do precisely as noted above. It’s adaptive behavior. It’s the “way it is.” And that knowledge…is incredibly valuable…
Now set that picture aside (oh close your mouth…it’s science, I’m not psychic).
Here’s the next series of images I’d like you to consider…
We go to the same event. Have the same argument. Watch the same concert and two very different experiences emerge. One person tells their story. Then the other. There is little reason to believe the two people experienced the same things.
“I don’t remember that.”
“How can you not remember that, are you nuts?”
“It didn’t happen!”
“Oh yes it did.”
And therein lies the rub….your memory IS very different than the other person’s and just because YOU remember it as X doesn’t mean the other person is errant in remembering it as Y.
It seems like there must be objective reality…yes? That’s the great thing of video and audio recordings. But even then you can watch the same thing and totally disagree with the other person. To the point of war on a global scale, divorce on a personal scale.
The Chicago White Sox won a game in the playoffs because of a freak call by an umpire. The replay on TV showed that the catcher caught the ball and the batter was out…according to White Sox fans… The catcher clearly trapped it, (it bounced off the ground) according to Anaheim Angels fans.
Insanity you say?
Not at all. It’s precisely how you and I see reality. We see precisely what we need or want to see to make sense of our world. It’s adaptive behavior. Keeps us sane and when people question our memory of course….there is no sanity to follow that is there?
If you have $500 bet on the New England Patriots and I have $500 on the Oakland Raiders, then when Deion Branch of the Patriots catches the ball in the end zone and seems to be inbounds on the replay…you clearly see that as fact. It’s obvious. But me? I have money on the Raiders. What’s obvious is that the left foot was touching the white line and he was out of bounds. No question. It is OBVIOUS that you are wrong…
And that is with instant replay. Indisputable visual evidence…except, of course, it isn’t.
Our brain sees ourselves as smarter and more attractive than the norm and we place greater faith in our memory than we do someone else’s.
What do those two things combined get you?
Lots of problems.
Problems that range from self-deception to not seeing what’s important to not being emotionally stable.
Can people really know themselves? Can we trust our own perceptions of ourselves, others, reality and our memory of the same?
And that makes you a bit nervous…and it should…but being aware of these defects helps you understand EVERYTHING a lot better.
Delving ever deeper into the intricate architecture of the brain, researchers at The Salk Institute have now described how two different types of nerve cells, called neurons, work together in tiny sub-networks to pass on just the right amount and the right kind of sensory information.
Their study, published online by Nature Neuroscience, depicts how specific types of inhibitory neurons in the visual cortex of a rat brain are wired to, and “talk” with, discrete excitatory neurons. They also show how that “conversation,” aimed at keeping the right balance of chemical signals, often excludes surrounding neurons.
“The inhibitory neurons are not just brakes, they can also be used to steer.” said co-author Ed Callaway, Ph.D., associate professor in Salk’s Systems Neurobiology Laboratories. For example, in vision, inhibitory responses in the visual cortex help people to focus on what they want to see, rather than all there is to see, he explained.
This new study is filling in the picture of how the brain is organized into “smart” efficient networks, and researchers hope that details of this complex design might, one day, uncover the roots of such neurological diseases as schizophrenia.
“We know already that schizophrenia is a problem with organization of inhibitory circuits of neurons, and now we are uncovering how these specialized nerve cells work together and with other neurons,” Callaway explained.
“By understanding the brain in finer and finer resolution, we can then trace what happens when these neural circuits are mis-wired,” he added.
The Nature Neuroscience report is the latest published study in a series by Callaway and first author Yumiko Yoshimura, of both Salk and Japan’s Nagoya University, that reveal how neurons in the brain’s cortex are finely wired to pass on thought and perception.
The brain cortex is the folded tissue that looks like the outside of cauliflower, but which in humans has a total surface area of about five feet, if stretched out. The cortex is separated into large areas of specialized function, such as the motor and visual cortex, but is also organized on a finer scale into vertical “functional columns” within the .05-inch thickness of the cortex.
Research in the 1960s showed that these columns contain brain cells with similar functions, suggesting that “like-minded” neurons needed to be networked together to perform a function. To account for the tasks carried out in the larger areas, scientists assumed that the function of these columns varied smoothly across the cortex surface. Later research demonstrated that each of the six layers in the cortex is also wired into distinct circuits.
But Callaway and Yoshimura tested the prevailing notion of columnar function by devising an experimental method that used glass microelectrodes to “listen” to two neurons at a time. They used rats, whose brain organization mirrors that of a human, and dissected tiny vertical slices to preserve the circuitry. With fine glass pipettes, they recorded tiny impulses in individual live neurons and listened to their responses when other neurons were optically stimulated. If impulses occurred at precisely the same times in both neurons, this indicated that they both shared the same inputs.
The Salk scientists found that the thousands of neighboring neurons that make up these columns are not the same, and they often don’t communicate directly with each other. In February, they reported in Nature how excitatory neurons were organized into sub-networks that were found within the same column but which had nothing to do with other cells nearby.
That meant that the brain’s circuitry is organized on a much finer scale than was previously suspected. And this makes sense, explained Callaway, because neuroscientists were puzzled as to why so many neurons were needed in the same part of the brain to carry out the same function.
“But if you realize that the brain has ten times as many subsets of neurons, it is doing ten times as much computation, and is that much smarter,” he noted.
In this study, Callaway and Yoshimura sought to look at the networks that pair together excitatory and inhibitory neurons. These neurons work directly with each other to shape responses to stimuli. This “go-no” kind of interaction is necessary, Callaway says, or a positive feedback of chemical signals across neuronal synapses would result in a myriad of disorders, including epilepsy.
They simultaneously measured activity in both a specific type of inhibitory neuron, called fast-spiking, and a neighboring excitatory neuron. They then stimulated one or the other neuron and measured responses in the second neuron. They found that connections from the fast-spiking neurons were six times stronger when both cells were interconnected than if there was only a one-way inhibitory connection “This demonstrated that neurons primarily inhibited just the cells that excited it, and that tells us there is specificity in these fine-scale circuits.” They then went on two show that these neuron pairs with two-way connections belonged to the same fine-scale subnetworks. “This means that inhibitory circuits can also precisely influence the activity of selected sub networks.”
Callaway says the study demonstrates that neuroscientists “are really getting down to real nuts and bolts of cell type specificity, meaning that different types of neurons have different function, just like different blood cells perform different roles,” he said. “We are not satisfied any more just to say what happens within a brain area. It is much more complicated _ and interesting _ than that.”
The Salk Institute for Biological Studies was founded in 1960 by Jonas Salk, just five years after his polio vaccine was proven safe and effective. The institute’s 58 faculty scientists conduct basic research in the neurosciences, molecular biology and genetics, and plant biology. For more information: www.salk.edu.
Fascinated by human behavior? Check out this new program on body language!
BODY LANGUAGE: Decoding, Interpreting & Mastering Non-Verbal Communication
with body language expert Kevin Hogan
The Advanced Home Study Course in Analyzing Nonverbal Communication!
When you discover the secrets of body language, you can be the one who:
- Never gets lied to
- Knows when they are attracted to you
- Knows when they are uncomfortable
- Is in control 100% of the time!
The exact same nonverbal communication that gets people to buy from you are the same ones that get them to buy you. Whether you want to master body language to make the sale or get the girl (or guy) this program reveals all the secret codes hidden for so long! Absolutely no one has all of this information. Period. My proprietary research (which you are going to receive!) brings you to the cutting edge of having people fall in love with you in literally a matter of seconds.
You are going to discover what really gets the sale, the promotion, and what seals or kills the deal.
Between 60% and 75% of all of your communication is nonverbal. Are you attracting or repelling people around you? Are you making every sale you could be? How are people reading you?
In the first four seconds people will make judgments about you:
- I will or will not buy from this person.
- I will or will not like this person.
- I find this person kind, or not.
- I find this person intelligent or not.
And now for the most amazing part of the course: 6 CDs and Video are INTERACTIVE with our secret website filled with photographs to analyze!
You move through a catalog of photographs and nuance by nuance analyze the small lines, wrinkles, facial expressions, hand and body placement. All these details are explained to you by body language expert, Kevin Hogan.
The first two introductory CDs are geared toward helping you make an incredible impression in those first four seconds. This advanced portion of the home study course is all about the other person! Now you can discover whether they are lying or not. You can find out the cues of annoyance, covering hidden feelings, and whether they like you or not.
You are going to learn to read people in virtually an instant. Kevin will introduce you to what he does when The New York Post, First for Women, Cosmopolitan, Playboy, The Star, Maxim, Success, Selling Power and the rest of the media call!
Over the past two years we’ve collected over 100 pictures of celebrities that he has analyzed for the media. Jennifer Lopez, Ben Affleck, Bill Clinton, Hillary Clinton, Chelsea Clinton, Angelina Jolie, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Maria Shriver, Faith Hill, Tim McGraw, The Sex and the City girls, Drew Barrymore, Kurt Russell, Goldie Hawn, Beyonce Knowles, Liz Hurley, Pamela Anderson, Stephen Spielberg, and dozens more.
As you progress through the course, you will become proficient at reading and analyzing body language! And of course, I’m giving you the keys to my password-protected secret website with over 100 photos of the stars ready to analyze!
This is a complete seminar in reading, decoding and interpreting body language from the source. Nothing is missing and YOU have access!
You will receive my complete analysis of EVERY PHOTOGRAPH on Six (6) Digital Audio CDs. Your Secret Password to the Hidden Website for the Interactive Photo Gallery will come with your package.